Opportunities for different types of firms

Different firms have different sensitivity towards sustainability issues. Those who have most to gain from sustainability performance are (Stoeckl 2004):
• Large firms, which are likely to have comparatively low investments in relation to their turnover.
• ‘Dirty firms’, which can easily pick ‘the low hanging fruits’.
• Firms which are capable of differentiating products on environmental grounds.
• Firms operating in regions of relatively high socio-economic status, or in environmentally ‘sensitive’ areas, or dealing with environmentally ‘sensitive’ products.
• Firms selling products to relatively affluent consumers.
• Firms operating in highly competitive markets that have access to cost reducing environmental programs or firms operating in very concentrated markets that have access to environmental programs that raise short-run costs and long run benefits.
• Firms that are members of industry-wide associations.


Stoeckl, N., The private costs and benefits of environmental self-regulation: which firms have most to gain? Business Strategy and the Environment, 13, 2004, p. 135-155